Create an NFT and deploy to a public testnet, using Truffle

In this tutorial we will create a non-fungible token (NFT) and deploy to a public testnet.

ERC721 is a standard for representing ownership of non-fungible tokens, that is, where each token is unique such as in real estate or collectibles.

We will use Presets contracts in OpenZeppelin Contracts 3 to create an ERC721 and deploy using Truffle.

Setting up the Environment

We begin by creating a new project.

$ mkdir mynft && cd mynft
$ npm init -y

Then we install OpenZeppelin Contracts which has an implementation of ERC721.

npm install --save-dev @openzeppelin/contracts

Next we install a development tool for deployment, for this tutorial we will use Truffle but we could use any other tools such as Buidler, Remix or OpenZeppelin CLI.

npm install truffle

Getting the contract artifacts

We will setup our Solidity project using truffle init to create a contracts directory and configuration to connect to a network.

$ npx truffle init
This directory is non-empty...
? Proceed anyway? (Y/n)
Starting unbox...
=================

? Proceed anyway? Yes
✔ Preparing to download box
✔ Downloading
✔ cleaning up temporary files
✔ Setting up box

Unbox successful, sweet!

Commands:

  Compile:        truffle compile
  Migrate:        truffle migrate
  Test contracts: truffle test

We are going to use Preset ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId which is an ERC721 that is preset so it can be minted (with auto token ID and metadata URI), paused and burned.

The Preset contracts have already been compiled, so we only need to copy the artifacts to the build/contracts directory.

$ mkdir -p build/contracts/
$ cp node_modules/@openzeppelin/contracts/build/contracts/* build/contracts/

Using your favorite editor create 2_deploy.js in the migrations directory with the following contents:

// migrations/2_deploy.js
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
const ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId = artifacts.require("ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId");

module.exports = function(deployer) {
  deployer.deploy(ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId, "My NFT","NFT", "https://my-json-server.typicode.com/abcoathup/samplenft/tokens/");
};

Deploy the contract to a local blockchain

We will use truffle develop to open a Truffle console with a development blockchain

$ npx truffle develop
Truffle Develop started at http://127.0.0.1:9545/

Accounts:
(0) 0x0445c33bdce670d57189158b88c0034b579f37ce
(1) 0x46b68a577f95d02d2732cbe93c1809e9ca25b443
(2) 0xff8ddfd4ae8ed56c4b94738fef931b732f3aaeb5
...

Private Keys:
(0) 11e8321617611610d7561dfdf1fdbf87cee4cc99b97cc73c68f0eb5715fff7cc
(1) b28ee7deb262fbb6cccabb43179406e97bf7ff4c20b66feac3321019373531bd
(2) 44e5ce1f204a63e50faf2f202af1d5653aace83805dd9bc7062033f0625aaaa7
...

Mnemonic: ridge drop soon clutch empty north car drum maximum obey clinic coin

⚠️  Important ⚠️  : This mnemonic was created for you by Truffle. It is not secure.
Ensure you do not use it on production blockchains, or else you risk losing funds.

truffle(develop)>

We can deploy our new NFT to our development blockchain using migrate.

truffle(develop)> migrate

Compiling your contracts...
===========================
> Everything is up to date, there is nothing to compile.



Starting migrations...
======================
> Network name:    'develop'
> Network id:      5777
> Block gas limit: 6721975 (0x6691b7)


1_initial_migration.js
======================

   Replacing 'Migrations'
   ----------------------
   > transaction hash:    0x5d71b0a45a0fe20e2ca645393bb44b83fbd47351c009c48be0b8b84b610fb3b7
   > Blocks: 0            Seconds: 0
   > contract address:    0x3797c825cAC4a1FA765F6D8cd7787fB195849555
   > block number:        1
   > block timestamp:     1590736865
   > account:             0x0445c33BdCe670D57189158b88c0034B579f37cE
   > balance:             99.99671674
   > gas used:            164163 (0x28143)
   > gas price:           20 gwei
   > value sent:          0 ETH
   > total cost:          0.00328326 ETH


   > Saving migration to chain.
   > Saving artifacts
   -------------------------------------
   > Total cost:          0.00328326 ETH


2_deploy.js
===========

   Replacing 'ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId'
   ------------------------------------------
   > transaction hash:    0x166d7b28f4afb949585b5a0e5b4151daa54acbcb70566b202fd62ab380a6650c
   > Blocks: 0            Seconds: 0
   > contract address:    0xDEE9411430c7Dd9b67fC6DA723DE729AdAB50AD7
   > block number:        3
   > block timestamp:     1590736866
   > account:             0x0445c33BdCe670D57189158b88c0034B579f37cE
   > balance:             99.92191642
   > gas used:            3697675 (0x386c0b)
   > gas price:           20 gwei
   > value sent:          0 ETH
   > total cost:          0.0739535 ETH


   > Saving migration to chain.
   > Saving artifacts
   -------------------------------------
   > Total cost:           0.0739535 ETH


Summary
=======
> Total deployments:   2
> Final cost:          0.07723676 ETH

We can then use our deployed contract.

truffle(develop)> nft = await ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId.deployed()
undefined

Interact with our Token

The accounts that we can use were displayed when we started truffle develop

Token metadata

We can call the contract to read token metadata such as name, symbol and baseURI

truffle(develop)> await nft.name()
'My NFT'
truffle(develop)> await nft.symbol()
'NFT'
truffle(develop)> await nft.baseURI()
'https://my-json-server.typicode.com/abcoathup/samplenft/tokens/'

Mint

We can send a transaction to mint tokens to a given account, from an account with the minter role.
In our case we are minting from the account which deployed the token, which is given the minter role.

We will mint 1 NFT with token ID 0.

truffle(develop)> await nft.mint("0x0445c33bdce670d57189158b88c0034b579f37ce")
{ tx:
   '0xd301a60dbb8ac187687f6639f200d4e6f2cfa065923092b3940330e35a26421d',
  receipt:
   { transactionHash:
      '0xd301a60dbb8ac187687f6639f200d4e6f2cfa065923092b3940330e35a26421d',
     transactionIndex: 0,
     blockHash:
      '0x3ad3cfcb26da0c969e9d5a5414a5e90a91a3a862c9e9082afc38a0ec0f1a5d00',
     blockNumber: 5,
     from: '0x0445c33bdce670d57189158b88c0034b579f37ce',
     to: '0xdee9411430c7dd9b67fc6da723de729adab50ad7',
     gasUsed: 156470,
...

We can check the owner of the token and the token URI for the metadata

truffle(develop)> await nft.ownerOf(0)
'0x0445c33BdCe670D57189158b88c0034B579f37cE'
truffle(develop)> await nft.tokenURI(0)
'https://my-json-server.typicode.com/abcoathup/samplenft/tokens/0'

MetaData

EIP-721 includes an optional metadata extension with a name, symbol and for each tokenID a tokenURI with can point to a JSON file with name, description and image for the given token ID.

How you create and host this metadata is up to you.
I would suggest using a domain that you control to point to where you host the data so that you can move it as required.

For this tutorial, we will use My JSON Server where we can store a single JSON file in a GitHub repository that we can access via a fake JSON server.

:warning: For production we need to store our metadata in a permanent location that can exist for the life of the token.

For images we will use twemoji Graphics from https://github.com/twitter/twemoji which are licensed under CC BY 4.0

A sample JSON for tokenID 0 is:
http://my-json-server.typicode.com/abcoathup/samplenft/tokens/0

Deploy to a public testnet

Next we will deploy to Rinkeby public testnet as OpenSea supports Rinkeby for testing.

To deploy, we will use the instructions for Connecting to Public Test Networks with Truffle

You will need the following:

  • An Infura project ID (or a public node provider of your choice)
  • @truffle/hdwallet-provider installed
  • Configure truffle-config.js for Rinkeby network
  • A funded testnet account and mnemonic
  • A secrets.json or another secret-management solution. Make sure you don’t commit this to GitHub!

My truffle-config.js has the following rinkeby configuration:

    rinkeby: {
      provider: () => new HDWalletProvider(mnemonic, `https://rinkeby.infura.io/v3/${projectId}`),
      network_id: 4,       // Rinkeby's id
      gas: 8500000,        
      gasPrice: 1000000000,  // 1 gwei (in wei) (default: 100 gwei)
      confirmations: 2,    // # of confs to wait between deployments. (default: 0)
      timeoutBlocks: 200,  // # of blocks before a deployment times out  (minimum/default: 50)
      skipDryRun: true     // Skip dry run before migrations? (default: false for public nets )
    },

Deploy to Rinkeby

$ npx truffle console --network rinkeby
truffle(rinkeby)> migrate

Compiling your contracts...
===========================
> Everything is up to date, there is nothing to compile.



Starting migrations...
======================
> Network name:    'rinkeby'
> Network id:      4
> Block gas limit: 10000000 (0x989680)


1_initial_migration.js
======================

   Deploying 'Migrations'
   ----------------------
   > transaction hash:    0xf817c3bb3b44349da50d90ef41317b64207eef76c5546a3348a8d8043a2d4d12
   > Blocks: 1            Seconds: 30
   > contract address:    0x1C883F26d124148c2E632539B4c37A6beD5eCD6f
   > block number:        6572315
   > block timestamp:     1590740195
   > account:             0x77737a65C296012C67F8c7f656d1Df81827c9541
   > balance:             3.986111900199984594
   > gas used:            164163 (0x28143)
   > gas price:           1 gwei
   > value sent:          0 ETH
   > total cost:          0.000164163 ETH

   Pausing for 2 confirmations...
   ------------------------------
   > confirmation number: 1 (block: 6572316)
   > confirmation number: 2 (block: 6572317)

   > Saving migration to chain.
   > Saving artifacts
   -------------------------------------
   > Total cost:         0.000164163 ETH


2_deploy.js
===========

   Deploying 'ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId'
   ------------------------------------------
   > transaction hash:    0x169e09cf7d50c226339493237b1d0981af0eed44698d35a132674105c311cb6e
   > Blocks: 0            Seconds: 9
   > contract address:    0x5c5c53D13aD8725cFE551D6E9dB93e9a9D38D78D
   > block number:        6572320
   > block timestamp:     1590740270
   > account:             0x77737a65C296012C67F8c7f656d1Df81827c9541
   > balance:             3.982371884199984594
   > gas used:            3697675 (0x386c0b)
   > gas price:           1 gwei
   > value sent:          0 ETH
   > total cost:          0.003697675 ETH

   Pausing for 2 confirmations...
   ------------------------------
   > confirmation number: 1 (block: 6572321)
   > confirmation number: 2 (block: 6572322)

   > Saving migration to chain.
   > Saving artifacts
   -------------------------------------
   > Total cost:         0.003697675 ETH


Summary
=======
> Total deployments:   2
> Final cost:          0.003861838 ETH

Mint

We can send a transaction to mint tokens to a given account, from an account with the minter role.

truffle(rinkeby)> nft = await ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId.deployed()
undefined

In our case we are minting from the account which deployed the token, which is given the minter role.

To see configured accounts run the command accounts.

truffle(rinkeby)> accounts
[ '0x77737a65C296012C67F8c7f656d1Df81827c9541',

We will mint 1 NFT with token ID 0. Specify the address that you want to be the token holder (0x77737a65C296012C67F8c7f656d1Df81827c9541 is one of my test accounts)

truffle(rinkeby)> await nft.mint("0x77737a65C296012C67F8c7f656d1Df81827c9541")
{ tx:
   '0xce8132ff0ffce128b8508d396fb0625a12c839fd1ee886eab5b4ddaf2755ca6f',
  receipt:
   { blockHash:
      '0x3f546e5caa9142d89dc3a87e7d369ba175629b480840d8bf88bd146f205e62de',
     blockNumber: 6572543,
     contractAddress: null,
     cumulativeGasUsed: 1410693,
     from: '0x77737a65c296012c67f8c7f656d1df81827c9541',
     gasUsed: 149870,
...

OpenSea

We can validate our metadata

:notebook: To obtain the address of our contract on Rinkeby we can use the Truffle console

truffle(rinkeby)> nft.address
'0x5c5c53D13aD8725cFE551D6E9dB93e9a9D38D78D'

OpenSea metadata validation is at https://rinkeby-api.opensea.io/asset/[nft contract address]/[token id]/validate

My example can be found at:
https://rinkeby-api.opensea.io/asset/0x5c5c53D13aD8725cFE551D6E9dB93e9a9D38D78D/0/validate/

Assuming that there aren’t any issues with our metadata, we can view our NFT on OpenSea at https://rinkeby.opensea.io/assets/[nft contract address]/[token id]

My example can be found at:

Next steps

  • Create your artwork and metadata.
  • Host your images and metadata.
  • Define what rights your token holders have.
  • Prepare for mainnet.
9 Likes
Custom TokenID with ERC721 OpenZeppelin Preset
How to build a simple ERC1155 Smart contract with Solidity [Italian]
My Coding Journey: Beginner to Pro
Error using NFT tutorial: Cannot create instance of ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId
ERC721Full.sol not found in OpenZeppelin Contracts v3.x?
Implementing Metadata to ERC721
My Coding Journey: Beginner to Pro
Coding Journey: An Idea turned Obsession
Creating an ERC-721 token with OpenZeppelin v3.x?
Unused function parameter
Simple Method to Iterate through tokenIDs for PresetMinterPauserAutoId?
Invalid number of parameters for "undefined". Got 1 expected 2 while deploying ERC721 Token Contract
Implementation of sellable NFT
ERC721 NFT not automatically showing on Metamask mobile on Kovan
Querying the balanceOf ERC721 contract from an ERC20 contract
Transaction hashes of a NFT
Introduce yourself here!
ERC721 testing transferFrom() from any account
Getting error :"Error: execution reverted: ERC721: balance query for the zero address"
Insufficient data for uint256 type (arg="value") on ERC721 minting
ERC721 NFT transfer error using MetaMask: ERC-20 Token Transfer Error
Introduce yourself here!
Error occur while creating ERC721-NFT token
How to launch a simple NFT on BSC?
Introduce yourself here!
Guides and Tutorials requests
Deployment failed on Rinkeby: “ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId” hit an invalid opcode
"ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId" hit an invalid opcode while deploying
Good frontend boilerplate
Any sample of auction that combines with ERC721?
ParserError: Expected '{' but got reserved keyword 'override' compiling ERC721 with Truffle and Solidity 0.5
My Coding Journey: Beginner to Pro

A post was split to a new topic: Deployment failed on Rinkeby: “ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId” hit an invalid opcode

2 posts were split to a new topic: Issue querying the balanceOf ERC721 contract from another ERC20 contract

Can you elaborate on how to use the extension for metadata? I am looking to change the metadata for every token. I have deployed the ```
ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId

Thank You

FOR THOSE USING WINDOWS LISTEN UP:

instead of using the linux/mac commands for copying the artifacts instead manually go into the @openzeppelin folder within the project and copy paste from @openzeppelin/contracts/build/contracts/ then go back to the main folder of desktop/mynft and paste all the 4 artifacts into the build/contracts folder.

3 Likes

Hi @jing,

Thanks for sharing. Whilst I use Windows 10, I do all my smart contract development on Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL2).

For Windows users I recommend using WSL2. Much of the ecosystem is written for and tested on Linux, so life is much easier using WSL. Solidity Smart Contract development on Windows

1 Like

Thanks for the tutorial, useful information! :+1:

1 Like

Good article! Thanks.

1 Like

A post was split to a new topic: ERC721 Transfer fails on MetaMask

A post was split to a new topic: Deploy failed

A post was split to a new topic: Hosting ERC721 metadata

A post was split to a new topic: Where to store NFT metadata and where to set the price?

A post was split to a new topic: “Migrations” – transaction could not be decoded: could not recover secp256k1 key

A post was split to a new topic: Cost to deploy ERC721 token to mainnet

A post was split to a new topic: Batch mint with ERC721PresetMinterPauserAutoId?

3 posts were split to a new topic: nft.baseURI is not a function

I completed this and it was a really good tutorial!

There is one question that I dont know how to figure it out. Can somebody drop any reference for me about how to make my own image on twemoji. I tried to search for some, but just didnt find anything thats helpful. I want to upload my own img to twemoji, to get my own twemoji link (ex: https://twemoji.maxcdn.com/svg/1f40e.svg). Can I upload my own img or I have to “draw my own” from twemoji?

Thanks for your support!

You can’t upload images to twemoji, you will need to host your own images somewhere else, such as GitHub Pages, or IPFS via Pinata.

1 Like

my nft is deployed at 0x0843e3bdEc2c8F640FCead18BBD7929593B58cA6 and token 0 was minted, I’ve followed the tutorial and it also validated successfully, but my image doesn’t show up, why could that be? thanks in advance

When you say “my image doesn’t show up”, where are you trying to see it? I can see the contract on Rinkeby and it seems to have correct metadata.