ERC721 V5 custom error rendering in client front. No Returns a renderable string

Unless I'm missing something, your question is a mess.

First off, you're mixing offchain perspective (Javascript code) with onchain perspective (Solidity code), making it very difficult to understand what you're even trying to ask.

Second, transferFrom (and likewise safeTransferFrom) is typically NOT something that you call from the offchain.

Rather, you call someTokenContract.approve, and then you call someOtherContract.someFunc.

Following your second call, someFunc will internally call transferFrom (or safeTransferFrom).

BTW, the first error-message in your question - Insufficient Allowance - tells you exactly that.

Not a complete answer to your question I suppose, but like I said - it is rather difficult to understand what you're trying to ask...